Quick Reference Chart

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ESSENTIAL OILS

Essential Oils Brewing

Essential oils provide us with a fragrant pharmacy full of remedies and delights for all aspects of our lives. This is an extraordinary fact. Already we know the earth provides us with food and water, but to realize as well that nature offers us a huge variety of plant essences capable of solving so many problems, and in addition giving us so much joy — well, that is something to rejoice in.

This chapter contains a quick and easy chart for immediate reference, plus 125 comprehensive profiles of individual essential oils and absolutes. The chart provides information on therapeutic uses, therapeutic properties, and precautionary advice for each essential oil. To find out more about a particular essential oil or absolute, refer to the full individual essential oil profiles that follow the chart.

The information listed under “Therapeutic Uses” in this chapter is not a definitive list of all the conditions that a particular essential oil could be used for. When deciding which essential oils to use for a specific condition, first look under “Therapeutic Uses” to see if the condition is listed there, and if it’s not, refer to the “Therapeutic Properties” entry. That may provide a more comprehensive picture of the potential healing spectrum of a particular essential oil. For example, if the symptoms of the condition involve painful muscular spasms, look for an essential oil that has analgesic, antispasmodic, or spasmolytic therapeutic properties. An explanation of the terms used can be found in appendix 2, “Glossary of Therapeutic Properties.”

A few essential oils in the following profiles are defined as absolutes. Absolute oils are usually produced from flowers or plant material not generally suitable for extraction by the usual methods of steam distillation or hydro distillation. For the most part absolutes are obtained by solvent extraction, after which the solvent is removed, or by CO2 extraction, which uses carbon dioxide to obtain the oil.

QUICK REFERENCE CHART

COMMON NAME(S) (Botanical Name)THERAPEUTIC USESTHERAPEUTIC PROPERTIESPRECAUTIONARY ADVICE
AMYRIS (Amyris balsamifera)Coughs, chest congestion, restlessness, stress, tension, a generally relaxing tonic, skin careAntiseptic, antispasmodic, balsamic, emollient, expectorant, regenerative, sedative, slight anti-inflammatoryNo contraindications known
ANGELICA ROOT (Angelica archangelica)Coughs, sinus infection, viral infection, rheumatism, arthritis, gout, physical fatigue, fortifying and strengthening, stress-related conditionsAnti-infectious, antispasmodic, antitussive, diuretic, mucolytic, stomachicHas photosensitization potential; avoid sunlight exposure after application. Best avoided during pregnancy.
ANGELICA SEED (Angelica archangelica)Menstrual problems, coughs, colds, fevers, digestive problems, indigestion, flatulence, stress, anxiety, nervousness; calmingAntiseptic, carminative, cholagogue, depurative, digestive, expectorant, stomachic, tonicNo contraindications known
ANISEED (Pimpinella anisum)Coughs, bronchitis, catarrh, flatulence, intestinal spasm, indigestion, digestive-linked migraines and headaches; calms nervous digestive tract conditionsAntiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, expectorant, stomachicMay cause irritation on highly sensitive skins; a skin patch test is advisable. Best avoided during pregnancy and while breast-feeding.
BALSAM DE PERU (Myroxylon balsamum)Skin conditions, rashes, wounds, pruritus, scabies, ringworm, bedsores, cuts, ulcers, hemorrhoids, coughs, bronchitis, head lice, dandruff, coughs, respiratory conditionsAnthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antitussive, balsamic, calmative, cicatrizing, expectorantMay cause irritation on highly sensitive skins; a skin patch test is advisable.
BASIL, SWEET (Ocimum basilicum)Muscular spasm and contraction, rheumatism, digestive problems, nausea, flatulence, menstrual cramps, dysmenorrhea, headache, migraines, tension, stress, physical and mental exhaustionAntibacterial, anti-infectious, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, digestive, restorative, stomachic, tonicMay cause irritation on highly sensitive skins; a skin patch test is advisable. Avoid use in baths and showers. Always dilute before use. Avoid during pregnancy and while breast-feeding.
BASIL LINALOL (Ocimum basilicum ct. linalool)Muscular spasm and contraction, rheumatism, respiratory conditions, menstrual cramps, menstrual problems, headache, migraines, intestinal cramps, nausea, cystitis, mental and physical fatigue, stress, tensionAntibacterial, antidepressant, anti-infectious, antiseptic, antispasmodic, calmative, carminative, nervine, restorative, tonicBest avoided during pregnancy
BASIL TULSI / HOLY BASIL / TULSI (Ocimum tenuiflorum/O. sanctum)Muscular spasm and contraction, respiratory conditions, cystitis, intestinal spasm, parasitic infections, cramp, menstrual cramp, menstrual problems, headache, migraine, mental and physical fatigueAntibacterial, anti-infectious, antiseptic, antispasmodic, calmative, carminative, pectoral, restorativeMay cause irritation on highly sensitive skins; a skin patch test is advisable. Avoid use in baths and showers. Always dilute before use. Avoid during pregnancy and while breast-feeding.
BAY, WEST INDIAN (Pimenta racemosa)Muscular aches and pains, neuralgia, arthritis, circulatory conditions, bronchial infections, digestive problemsAnalgesic, anti-infectious, anti-neuralgic, anti-rheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, circulatory, nervine, tonicCan be a skin irritant; carry out a skin patch test. Best used for acute conditions. Best avoided during pregnancy.
BAY LAUREL (Laurus nobilis)Influenza, rheumatism, muscular aches and pains, neuralgia, arthritis, circulatory conditions, candida, respiratory and bronchial infections, digestive problems, flatulence, colds, flu, skin rashes, spots, sores, dental infection, fungal foot conditions, nervousness, general fatigueAnalgesic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-infectious, antimicrobial, antineuralgic, antiviral, circulatory, expectorant, pectoralThose prone to allergic skin reactions are advised to carry out a skin patch test. Avoid during pregnancy.
BENZOIN (Styrax benzoin)Catarrh, bronchitis, coughs, colds, scar tissue, nervous tension, stress, emotional crisisAntidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, carminative, expectorant, pectoral, vulneraryThose with highly sensitive skin or those prone to allergic skin reactions are advised to carry out a skin patch test.
BERGAMOT (Citrus bergamia)Infections, fevers, indigestion, cystitis, wounds, acne, herpes sores, depression, stress, tension, insomnia, fear, emotional crisis, emotional strengthening, convalescenceAntibacterial, antidepressant, antiseptic, antispasmodic, calmative, carminative, febrifuge, sedative, stomachic, vulneraryPhotosensitizer; do not apply to the skin prior to sun exposure. Rectified bergamot FCF is a nonphotosensitizer.
BIRCH, SWEET (Betula lenta)Muscular aches and pains, rheumatism, arthritis, muscular injury, skeletal inflammation, lumbago, neuralgia, circulatory conditions, detoxifying, edema, heavy limbsAnalgesic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, circulatory, diuretic, stimulantTo be avoided by those on multiple medications or anticoagulants. Not recommended for nonprofessional users. Not to be used during pregnancy and while breast-feeding.
BLACK PEPPER (Piper nigrum)General aches and pains, stomach cramp, digestive problems, rheumatism, circulatory conditions, cold limbs, chills, exhaustion, convalescence; a general nerve tonicAnalgesic, anticatarrhal, anti-infectious, antimicrobial, antiseptic, circulatory, diuretic, febrifuge, general tonic, immunostimulant, nervine, restorative, tonicMay cause irritation on highly sensitive skins
CAJUPUT (Melaleuca cajuputi)Arthritis, rheumatism, neuralgia, muscular spasms and contractions, sciatica, sore throats, sinusitis, bronchitis, coughs, colds, parasite-induced skin problems, skin infections, head lice, insect bites, fatigueAnalgesic, antibacterial, anti-infectious, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, decongestant, expectorant, febrifuge, insect deterrent, pectoral, stimulant, tonicNo contraindications known
CAMPHOR, WHITE (Cinnamomum camphora)Muscular aches and pains, rheumatism, muscular injuries, chesty coughs, bronchitis, colds, sinus problems, acne, rashes, parasitic skin infection, contusions, bruises; stimulating, insect repellentAnthelmintic, antibacterial, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, expectorant, stimulantBest avoided during pregnancy and while breast-feeding. White camphor should not be confused with brown or yellow camphors, both of which should not be used.
CANANGA (Cananga odorata ct. macrophylla)Circulatory conditions, inflamed skin, physical exhaustion, stress, tension, nervousness, anxiety; perfumery, skin careAntidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, calmative, hypotensive, sedativeNo contraindications known
CARAWAY SEED (Carum carvi)Gastrointestinal conditions, dyspepsia, abdominal spasm, colic, flatulence, intestinal cramps and spasms, IBS, colitis, diverticulitis, gastric ulceration, allergic rhinitis, bronchitis, coughs, nervousnessAntibacterial, antihistaminic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, calmative, carminative, digestive, expectorant, nervine, pectoral, stomachicNo contraindications known
CARDAMOM (Elettaria cardamomum)Indigestion, intestinal cramp, flatulence, dyspepsia, nausea, gastric migraine, constipation, IBS, colitis, Crohn’s disease, muscular cramps and strains, muscular spasm, bronchial congestion, exhaustion and mental fatigue; strengthening, fortifyingAnalgesic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, calmative, carminative, nervine, pectoral, stomachicNo contraindications known
CARNATION ABSOLUTE (Dianthus caryophyllus)Stress, insomnia, overactive mind, workaholism, insecurity, inability to communicate feelings, feeling detached from reality, sense of aloneness; relaxationCalmative, relaxant, tonicNo contraindications known
CARROT SEED (Daucus carota)Arthritis, rheumatism, indigestion, water retention, genitourinary infections, urinary tract infections, detoxifying, eczema, ulcers, psoriasis, acne, pimplesCalmative, cytophylactic, depurative, diuretic, hepatic, regenerative, vasodilatoryBest avoided during pregnancy and while breast-feeding
CEDARWOOD, VIRGINIA (Juniperus virginiana)Respiratory infections, catarrh, bronchitis, coughs, urinary tract infections, celluliteAntiseptic, astringent, balsamic, decongestant, depurative, diuretic, expectorant, insect deterrent, pectoralMay cause irritation on sensitive skins; a skin patch test is advisable. Avoid during pregnancy.
CEDARWOOD ATLAS (Cedrus atlantica)Chest infections, catarrh, detoxifying, cellulite, anxiety, stress, tension, physical exhaustion, acne, scalp disordersAnti-inflammatory, antiseborrheic, antiseptic, depurative, pectoral, regenerative, restorative, tonicNo contraindications known
CELERY SEED (Apium graveolens)Varicose veins, heavy legs, congestion, constipation, hemorrhoids, detoxifying, stress-related digestive conditions, nervousness, depressionAntiseptic, calmative, circulatory, depurative, digestive, sedativeNo contraindications known
CHAMOMILE GERMAN (Matricaria recutita)Pain relief, inflammation, fever, rheumatism, arthritis, muscular spasm, neuralgia, endometriosis, menstrual cramp, detoxification, abdominal cramp, stomachache, inflamed skin conditions, infected skin conditions, wounds, rashes, psoriasis, eczema, acne, spots, chilblainsAnalgesic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiphlogistic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, calmative, cicatrizing, emmenagogue, febrifuge, hepatic, immunostimulant, stomachic, vulneraryNo contraindications known
CHAMOMILE MAROC (Ormenis multicaulis)Muscular spasm, menstrual cramp, intestinal cramp, stomachache, migraine, headaches, nervousness, irritability, anxietyAnthelmintic, anti-infectious, antiseptic, antispasmodic, calmative, carminative, relaxant, sedativeNo contraindications known
CHAMOMILE ROMAN (Anthemis nobilis)Muscular spasm and contraction, rheumatism, menstrual cramp, rashes, acne, eczema, psoriasis, skin irritation, inflammatory skin infections, sunburn, dental and teething problems, insomnia, anxiety, nervousness, depression, stress-related conditions, insect bites and stingsAnalgesic, antibacterial, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, antineuralgic, antispasmodic, calmative, cicatrizing, immunostimulant, nervine, sedative, vulneraryNo contraindications known
CINNAMON LEAF (Cinnamomum zeylanicum)Bacterial and viral infections, parasitic infection, intestinal infection, fungal infection, respiratory infection, fevers, coughs, flu, muscular injury, aches and pains, rheumatism, arthritis, cold limbs, general physical debility, exhaustion, fatigue, tired all the timeAnalgesic, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, antimicrobial, antiputrescent, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, carminative, circulatory, depurative, immunostimulant, stimulant, tonicBest avoided if using multiple medications or anticoagulants. Those with hypersensitive skin are advised to carry out a skin patch test.
CISTUS/LABDANUM/ROCKROSE (Cistus ladaniferus)Viral infection, influenza, bronchial conditions, joint aches and pains, muscular pain, arthritis, cuts, wounds, spots, acne, stems bleeding, scarring, nervousness, tension, stressAnalgesic, antibacterial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, calmative, cicatrizing, immunostimulantBest avoided during pregnancy
CITRONELLA (Cymbopogon nardus)Muscular aches and pains, infectious skin conditions, fevers, heat rash, excessive perspiration, fungal infection, fungal foot infection, fatigue, insect deterrent, insect bitesAntibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiphlogistic, antiseptic, febrifuge, insect repellentMay cause irritation on highly sensitive skin; a patch test is advisable. Skin applications are best avoided during pregnancy.
CLARY SAGE (Salvia sclarea)Menstrual problems, menstrual cramps, endometriosis, PMS, menopausal problems, hot flashes, muscular aches and pains, muscular fatigue, muscular spasm, excessive perspiration, headache, loss of concentration, memory, insomnia, nervousness, depression, anxiety, physical stress, psychological stressAnalgesic, antibacterial, antidepressant, antiseptic, antisudorific, calmative, emmenagogue, nervine, restorative, soporific, spasmolytic, tonicBest avoided during pregnancy
CLOVE BUD (Syzygium aromaticum)Pain relief, bacterial infection, fungal infection, viral skin infections, warts, verrucas, toothache, gum disease, muscle pain, rheumatism, flu, bronchitis, tired limbs, nausea, flatulence, stomach cramps, abdominal spasm, parasitic infection, scabies, ringwormAnalgesic, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-infectious, antineuralgic, antiseptic, carminative, spasmolytic, stomachicAvoid prolonged use. Avoid using undiluted on skin; apply a skin patch test for highly sensitive skins. Avoid during pregnancy.
COPAIBA (Copaifera officinalis)Bronchitis, sore throats, tonsillitis, varicose conditions, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, urinary tract infection, cystitis, intestinal cramp and spasm, stomachache, stomach discomfort, Helicobacter pylori, muscular pain, bacterial and inflammatory skin conditions, fungal skin infection, onychomycosis, nail infection, athlete’s footAnalgesic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic, astringent, cicatrizing, circulatory, diuretic, expectorant, stimulantNo contraindications known
CORIANDER SEED (Coriandrum sativum)Digestive problems, flatulence, dyspepsia, bloating, indigestion, abdominal spasm, abdominal discomfort, IBS, detoxifying, nervous tension, muscular fatigue, muscular aches and pains, mental fatigue, tired all the time, emotional exhaustionAnalgesic, antibacterial, antispasmodic, carminative, depurative, regenerative, sedative, stimulant, stomachicNo contraindications known
CYPRESS (Cupressus sempervirens)Varicose veins, fluid retention, hemorrhoids, congestive conditions, heavy and tired legs, edema, rheumatism, menstrual cramp, menopausal fatigue, hot flashes, cellulite, dry cough, bronchial spasm, asthma, respiratory conditionsAntispasmodic, antisudorific, antitussive, astringent, circulatory, diuretic, hepatic, restorative, vasoconstrictor, venous decongestant.Avoid prolonged use. Best avoided in pregnancy and while breast-feeding.
DAMIANA (Turnera diffusa)Catarrh, respiratory tract irritation, menstrual cramp, menopausal symptoms, headache, migraine, impotency, lack of sexual desire, nervous tension, nervous exhaustionAntidepressant, antiseptic, aphrodisiac, astringent, cholagogue, diuretic, expectorant, nervine, stimulant, stomachic, tonicBest avoided during pregnancy and while breast-feeding
DAVANA (Artemisia pallens)Bacterial infections, bronchial congestion, coughs, colds, influenza, nervous stomach, indigestion, nausea, menstrual cramp, menopausal symptoms, general debility, anxiety, stress, irritability, tensionAntidepressant, anti-infectious, antimicrobial, antiseptic, calmative, decongestive, mucolytic, nervine, restorative, stomachicBest avoided during pregnancy
DILL SEED (Anethum graveolens)Colic, indigestion, dyspepsia, flatulence, gastrointestinal spasm, intestinal cramp, gastric spasm, IBS, diverticulosis, constipation, detoxifying, headache, nervous stomach, menstrual pain, digestive stimulant, nervousnessAntiputrescent, antiseptic, antispasmodic, calmative, carminative, cholagogue, decongestive, depurative, digestive, hepatic, sedativeBest avoided if using multiple medications
ELEMI (Canarium luzonicum)Respiratory tract infections, chronic coughs, catarrh, stress-related bronchial conditions, muscular fatigue, overworked muscles, infectious skin conditions, wounds, cuts and grazes, tiredness; soothing and calmingAnalgesic, anti-infectious, antiseptic, antispasmodic, cicatrizing, expectorant, pectoral, stimulant, stomachic, tonicNo contraindications known
EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS (Eucalyptus globulus)Respiratory infections, bronchitis, fever, catarrh, sinusitis, fever, muscular aches and pains, rheumatism, arthritis, urinary infection, cystitis, parasitic infectionAnalgesic, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiputrescent, antirheumatic, antiseptic, antiviral, expectorant, febrifuge, pectoralEucalyptus radiata is preferable for use with seniors and those convalescing. Best avoided during pregnancy and while breast-feeding.
EUCALYPTUS LEMON (Eucalyptus citriodora / Corymbia citriodora)Muscular injuries, fungal skin infection, bacterial skin infection, sores, wounds, respiratory tract conditions, asthma, fever, candida, insect bites; insect repellentAnalgesic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, calmative, insect deterrent, vulneraryNo contraindications known
EUCALYPTUS PEPPERMINT (Eucalyptus dives)Respiratory infections, sinusitis, sinus headaches, influenza, fever, headache, migraine, rheumatism, arthritis, muscular aches and pains, leg cramps, abdominal cramp, menstrual cramp, neuralgia, inflammatory conditions, candida, cellulite, parasitic infections, head lice, fatigue, exhaustion, acne, pimplesAnalgesic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antineuralgic, antiseptic, expectorant, mucolytic, pectoral, spasmolytic, stimulant, vasodilatoryThose prone to allergic skin reactions are advised to carry out a skin patch test. Best avoided during pregnancy and while breast-feeding.
EUCALYPTUS RADIATA (Eucalyptus radiata)Respiratory tract infection, bronchitis, catarrh, sinusitis, rhinitis, colds, influenza, fever, asthma, rheumatism, muscular aches and pains, neuralgia, abdominal cramp, menstrual cramp, headache, mental exhaustion, fatigue, general stimulant and tonic, insect stings and bitesAnalgesic, antibacterial, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, antiphlogistic, antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitussive, antiviral, expectorant, febrifuge, immunostimulant, pectoral, tonic, vulneraryNo contraindications known
FENNEL, SWEET (Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce)Digestive disorders, colic, dyspepsia, gastrointestinal spasm, flatulence, nausea, constipation, IBS, abdominal spasm, menstrual problems, menstrual cramp, premenstrual syndrome, infertility, endometriosis, menopausal symptoms, detoxifying, cellulite, fluid retention, heavy legs, bronchitis, respiratory conditions, parasitic infectionAnti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, depurative, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, spasmolytic, stomachic, vermifugeAvoid if using multiple medications. Avoid during pregnancy and while breast-feeding.
FIR, SILVER (Abies alba)Catarrh, sinusitis, bronchitis, bronchial tract discomfort, dry cough, rheumatism, muscular aches and pains, feverishness, anxiety, tension; general tonicAnalgesic, antiseptic, antitussive, expectorant, pectoral, tonicBest avoided by those with respiratory problems
FRAGONIA (Agonis fragrans)Respiratory conditions, bronchitis, catarrh, sinus congestion, colds, bacterial and fungal infections, skin infection, pains, acne, pimples, inflammatory muscular conditions, muscular aches and painsAnalgesic, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiputrescent, immunostimulant, mucolytic, pectoral, restorative, spasmolytic, vulneraryNo contraindications known
FRANKINCENSE (Boswellia carterii)Coughs, colds, bronchitis, nervous asthma, skin infections, scars, wounds, urinary tract infection, mental fatigue, depression, nervousness, stress, tension, inability to communicateAntibacterial, antidepressant, antimicrobial, antiseptic, calmative, cicatrizing, cytophylactic, expectorant, nervine, restorative, tonicNo contraindications known
GALBANUM (Ferula galbaniflua)Skin infections, inflammatory skin disorders, acne, pimples, cuts and grazes, wounds, scarring, bronchitis, coughs, respiratory difficulties, inflammatory muscular aches and pains, rheumatoid arthritis, indigestion, stress and nerve-related conditionsAnti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic, calmative, carminative, cicatrizing, digestive, nervine, spasmolytic, tonicNo contraindications known
GERANIUM (Pelargonium graveolens / Pelargonium × asperum)Female reproductive disorders, menstrual cramp, infertility, endometriosis, PMS, menopausal symptoms, circulatory disorders, Raynaud’s disease, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, neuralgia, nervous skin disorders, depression, fatigue, emotional crisis, stress-related conditionsAnalgesic, antibacterial, antidepressant, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, astringent, circulatory, hemostatic, nervine, restorative, spasmolytic, stimulant, tonic, vulneraryNo contraindications known
GERANIUM, BULGARIAN / ZDRAVETZ (Geranium macrorrhizum)Menstrual problems, menopausal symptoms, infertility, insomnia, nervous depression, fatigue, skin conditions — irritation, soreness, problematic skinAntidepressant, anti-infectious, antispasmodic, carminative, diaphoretic, febrifuge, hypertensive, nervine, sedative, stimulatingNo contraindications known
GINGER (Zingiber officinale)Fractures, rheumatism, arthritis, muscle fatigue, muscular weakness, numbness, menstrual cramp, gastrointestinal spasm, digestive problems, flatulence, diverticulosis, IBS, constipation, nausea, sea and travel sickness, colds, chills, influenza, sinus congestion, chronic catarrh, circulatory tonic, Raynaud’s disease, cold limbs, nervousness, mental exhaustion, general debilityAnalgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitussive, carminative, circulatory, expectorant, febrifuge, fortifying, pectoral, stimulant, stomachic, thermogenicNo contraindications known
GINGER LILY ROOT (Hedychium spicatum)Cuts, scratches, wounds, respiratory conditions, insomnia, nausea, coughs, chest infection, mental fatigue, anxiety, chronic fatigue, anxiety, stress, nervousnessAntibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, carminative, digestive, expectorant, stimulant, tonicThose with highly sensitive skin or prone to allergic skin reaction are advised to carry out a skin patch test.
GRAPEFRUIT (Citrus paradisi)Muscle fatigue, muscular weakness, cellulite, migraine, headache, fluid retention, IBS, detoxifying, physical exhaustion, mental exhaustion, depression, stressAnti-infectious, antiseptic, cholagogue, depurative, digestive, diuretic, hepatic, immunostimulant, tonicAvoid if using multiple medications. Is a low-risk photosensitizer; do not apply to the skin prior to sun exposure.
GREENLAND MOSS / LABRADOR TEA (Ledum groenlandicum)Circulatory dysfunction, internal and soft tissue inflammation, liver conditions, detoxifying, water retention, edema, swellings, injuries, muscular aches and pains, stress-related conditions, anxiety, tensionAnalgesic, antibacterial, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, circulatory, depurative, diuretic, hepatic, immunostimulant, spasmolytic, tonicAvoid prolonged use. May cause irritation on highly sensitive skins; a patch test is advisable. Best avoided during pregnancy and while breast-feeding.
HOP (Humulus lupulus)Neuralgia, bruising, analgesic, menstrual problems, menopausal symptoms, insomnia, coughs, stress-related asthma, stress-related digestive conditions, nervousness, stress, tensionAntimicrobial, astringent, calmative, carminative, emollient, estrogenic, nervine, soporific, spasmolyticBest avoided during pregnancy and while breast-feeding
HO WOOD (Cinnamomum camphora ct. linalool)Influenza, colds, chills, bacterial and viral respiratory infections, menstrual cramp, vaginal infections, parasitic skin infection, wounds, cuts, grazes, eczema, acne, stress and stress-related conditions, anxiety, tensionAnalgesic, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antidepressant, antifungal, anti-infectious, antiseptic, antiviral, cytophylactic, immunostimulant, restorative, tonicNo contraindications known
HYSSOP DECUMBENS (Hyssopus officinalis var. decumbens)Coughs, colds, influenza, bronchitis, catarrh, asthma, bronchial infections, contusions, bruising, wounds, arthritis, rheumatism, muscular aches and pains, digestive problemsAntibacterial, antiviral, astringent, carminative, cicatrizing, circulatory, digestive, diuretic, expectorant, pectoral, spasmolyticAvoid during pregnancy and while breast-feeding
IMMORTELLE / ITALIAN EVERLASTING / HELICHRYSUM (Helichrysum italicum)Pain relief, bruising, wounds, contusions, coughs, bronchial congestion, rhinitis, abdominal cramp, muscular spasm, rheumatism, arthritis, carpel tunnel, tendonitis, edema, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, circulatory conditions, ulceration, acne, pimples, eczema, psoriasisAnalgesic, anticholagogue, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, cicatrizing, circulatory, diuretic, expectorant, hepatic, mucolytic, spasmodic, stimulant, vulneraryAvoid prolonged use. Best avoided during pregnancy.
JASMINE ABSOLUTE (Jasminum grandiflorum/officinale)Fertility, menstrual cramp, abdominal spasm, nervous tension, nervousness, stress-related conditions, lethargy, apathy, fatigue, insecurity, low esteem, anxiety, depressionAntidepressant, antiseptic, antispasmodic, calmative, cicatrizing, nervine, sedative, stimulantNo contraindications known
JUNIPER BERRY (Juniperus communis)Fluid retention, cystitis, urinary tract infections, abdominal bloating, menstrual cramp, heavy legs, detoxifying, cellulite, gout, rheumatism, arthritis, acne, ulceration, eczema, mental exhaustion, chronic fatigue, anxiety, tensionAnalgesic, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, carminative, depurative, diuretic, emmenagogue, nervine, spasmolytic, tonicBest avoided by those with kidney disorders. Best avoided during pregnancy.
LAVANDIN (Lavandula x intermedia)Skin infections, wounds, menstrual cramp, muscular cramp and contractions, muscular spasm, muscular injuries, migraine, stress, tension, respiratory tract infections, rashes, pimples, acne, nervous tension, pain reliefAnalgesic, antibacterial, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, nervine, sedative, vulneraryNo contraindications known
LAVENDER (Lavandula angustifolia)Inflammatory conditions, skin infections, wounds, cuts, grazes, rashes, itching, stress-related eczema, nervous psoriasis, sunburn, burns, muscular spasm, muscular contraction, abdominal cramp, headache, migraine, insomnia, nervousness and related conditions, acne, pimples, insect bites, stress, tension, anxiety, tension, panic; insect deterrentAnalgesic, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antidepressant, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antivenomous, calmative, cicatrizing, cytophylactic, sedative, soporific, spasmolytic, vulneraryNo contraindications known
LAVENDER, SPIKE (Lavandula latifolia)Muscular aches and pains, muscular spasm, muscular injuries, migraine, catarrh, bronchial congestion, headaches, pimples, rashes, nervous tension, insect bitesAnalgesic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic, antitoxic, antiviral, cicatrizing, decongestant, expectorant, immunostimulant, insect repellent, spasmolyticNo contraindications known
LEMON (Citrus limon)Digestive problems, loss of appetite, detoxifying, cellulite, bronchial conditions, influenza, sore throat, laryngitis, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, acne, skin infections, herpes, abscesses, physical exhaustion, fatigue, debilitation, anxious depression, nervous tension, inability to concentrate or focusAnti-infectious, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, astringent, calmative, carminative, cicatrizing, circulatory, depurative, digestive, diuretic, hemostatic, stimulant, tonic, vermifugeExpressed lemon oil is a photosensitizer; do not apply to the skin prior to sun exposure. Distilled lemon oil is a nonphotosensitizer. May cause irritation on highly sensitive skin; skin patch test is advisable.
LEMONGRASS (Cymbopogon citratus/flexuosus)Muscular aches and pains, muscular ligament and tendon injury, gastrointestinal disorders, indigestion, colitis, diuretic, detoxifying, cellulite, fever, nonspecific infections, physical and mental exhaustion, acne, pimples, insect bitesAnalgesic, anthelmintic, antifungal, anti-infectious, antimicrobial, antiseptic, astringent, depurative, digestive, diuretic, febrifuge, insect deterrent, tonicMay cause irritation on highly sensitive skins; a patch test is advisable. Best avoided during pregnancy. Avoid if using multiple medications.
LEMON VERBENA (Lippia citriodora)Nervous indigestion, abdominal cramp, muscular spasm, gastrointestinal problems, diverticulosis, IBS, insomnia, stress, depression, nervous asthma, anxiety, restlessnessAnthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, digestive, sedative, stimulantPhotosensitizer; do not apply to the skin prior to sun exposure. May cause irritation on highly sensitive skins; a patch test is advisable.
LIME (Citrus aurantifolia)Digestive problems, loss of appetite, detoxifying, cellulite, heavy and sore legs, throat infections, tonsillitis, sore throats, bronchial conditions, influenza, lethargy, chronic fatigue, mental exhaustion, intestinal parasitesAnthelmintic, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antiviral, astringent, cholagogue, depurative, digestive, restorativeExpressed lime oil is a photosensitizer; do not apply to the skin prior to sun exposure. Distilled lime oil is a nonphotosensitizer.
LINDEN BLOSSOM ABSOLUTE (Tilia vulgaris/cordata)Nervous tension, nervous spasm, muscular spasm, insomnia, soothing, calming, emotional crisis, stress- and anxiety-related conditionsAntidepressant, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, calmative, emollient, expectorant, nervine, sedativeAvoid during pregnancy
MAGNOLIA FLOWER (Michelia alba)Scars, wounds, muscular aches, abdominal cramp, intestinal spasm, fear-induced anxiety, insomnia, inability to communicate, stress-related tension, depressionAnalgesic, antidepressive, antiseptic, antispasmodic, calmative, cytophylactic, nervine, restorative, sedativeNo contraindications known
MANDARIN (Citrus reticulata/C. nobilis)Digestive conditions, nervous spasm, intestinal spasm, IBS, stomachache, constipation, cellulite, insomnia, sleeping disorders, nervous tension, irritability, stress, convalescence, problem skinAntiseptic, antispasmodic, calmative, digestive, sedative, stomachic, tonicNo contraindications known
MANUKA (Leptospermum scoparium)Bronchial infections, bronchitis, catarrh, coughs, influenza, skin infections, wounds, cuts, grazes, contusions, ulceration, Helicobacter pylori, fungal skin infection, athlete’s foot, parasitic infection, ringworm, mites, head lice, scabiesAnalgesic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic, cytophylactic, expectorant, immunostimulant, spasmolytic, vulneraryNo contraindications known
MARJORAM, SWEET (Origanum majorana)Muscle relaxant, muscular spasm, muscular pain, general aches, numbness, bodily stiffness, abdominal pain, menstrual cramp, menstrual problems, menopausal symptoms, contusion, bruises, head pain, gastrointestinal disorders, abdominal spasm, indigestion, intestinal spasm, constipation, IBS, diverticulosis, insomnia, stress-related conditions, anxietyAnalgesic, antibacterial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, calmative, circulatory, digestive, nervine, sedative, vasodilatoryNo contraindications known
MASTIC (Pistacia lentiscus)Bronchial disorders, coughs, colds, arthritis, rheumatism, varicose veins, circulatory conditions, Helicobacter pylori, ulceration, wounds, cuts and grazes, hemorrhoids, aching and heavy legs, cold lower limbs and numbness, dental hygieneAnalgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitussive, circulatory, decongestive, expectorant, pectoral, vasoconstrictor, vulneraryNo contraindications known
MAY CHANG (Litsea cubeba)Cellulite, stomachache, abdominal cramp, indigestion, muscular aches and pains, tendonitis, arthritis, rheumatism, problematic skin conditions — acne, pimples, boils — circulation conditions, nervous tension, anxiety, stressAnthelmintic, antidepressant, antifungal, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, astringent, carminative, circulatory, insect deterrent, sedative, stimulantMay cause irritation on highly sensitive skins; a patch test is advisable. Best avoided during pregnancy.
MELISSA (Melissa officinalis)Insomnia, sleep disorders, indigestion, nausea, fungal infection, candida, viral skin infection, herpes, menopausal symptoms, detoxifying, nervousness, stress- and anxiety-related symptoms, depressionAntibacterial, antidepressant, antifungal, antiseptic, antiviral, calmative, circulatory, depurative, insect repellent, nervine, soporific, spasmolytic, stomachicAvoid if using multiple medications. May cause irritation on highly sensitive skins; a patch test is advisable. Best avoided during pregnancy and while breast-feeding.
MIMOSA ABSOLUTE (Acacia decurrens/A. farnesiana)Nervous tension, nerve-related conditions, stress-related fatigue, stress, depression, intestinal infection, diarrhea, upset stomachAntiseptic, astringent, calmative, emollientBest avoided during pregnancy and while breast-feeding
MYRRH (Commiphora myrrha)Coughs, catarrh, bronchitis, bronchial congestion, wounds, sores, ulceration, eczema, skin infections, ringworm, scabies, insect bites, parasitic bites, excess mucus, gum disease, mouth ulcers, fungal nail infectionAntifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic, astringent, balsamic, carminative, cicatrizing, expectorant, pectoral, vulneraryAvoid during pregnancy and while breast-feeding
MYRTLE (Myrtus communis)Bronchitis, sinus infection, laryngitis, bronchial infections, coughs, colds, cystitis, urinary tract infection, heavy legs, insomnia, tired all the time, skin disorders, psoriasis, acne, pimples, boils, parasitic infection, head lice, mite bites, emotional, mental, and physical exhaustionAntibacterial, anticatarrhal, antiviral, astringent, expectorant, pectoral, regenerative, restorative, soporific, stimulant, tonicBest avoided during pregnancy and while breast-feeding. Avoid if using multiple medications.
NARCISSUS ABSOLUTE (Narcissus poeticus)Stress, tension, anxiety, insomnia, muscular spasm, aches and pains, nervousness, inability to relax, troubled mindsAntispasmodic, hypnotic, nervine, sedative, soporificMay cause headaches in susceptible people. Best avoided during pregnancy.
NEEM/MARGOSA (Azadirachta indica)Psoriasis, eczema, parasitic skin infection, ringworm, scabies, ulceration, bacterial skin infection, scalp infection, dandruff, head lice, acne, sores, pimples, insect bites, insect stingsAnalgesic, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, insecticide, pesticide, sedativeMay cause irritation on sensitive skin. Best avoided during pregnancy.
NEROLI / ORANGE BLOSSOM (Citrus aurantium)Insomnia, convalescence, indigestion, abdominal spasm, intestinal cramp, stress and related conditions, scar tissue, scarring, skin regenerating, acne, problematic skins, stretch marks, menopausal anxieties, insomnia, sleep disorders, nervousness, depression, tension, emotional exhaustionAntidepressant, anti-infectious, antimicrobial, antiseptic, calmative, carminative, cicatrizing, circulatory, cytophylactic, regenerative, restorative, sedative, spasmolytic, tonicNo contraindications known
NIAOULI (Melaleuca quinquenervia)Bronchitis, respiratory tract disorders, influenza, sinus congestion, sore throats, catarrh, coughs, colds, uterine infection, rheumatism, muscular injuries, rashes, pimples, acne, herpes, wounds, cuts and grazesAnalgesic, antibacterial, anticatarrhal, antifungal, antiseptic, antiviral, balsamic, decongestant, expectorant, insect deterrent, pectoral, tonic, vulneraryNo contraindications known
NUTMEG (Myristica fragrans)Gastrointestinal spasm, nausea, upset stomach, rheumatism, arthritis, muscular aches and pains, muscular injuries, menstrual cramp, insomnia, restlessness, nervousness, tensionAnalgesic, anti-infectious, antiseptic, calmative, carminative, digestive, nervine, sedative, spasmolyticAvoid if using multiple medications. Best avoided during pregnancy and while breast-feeding.
ORANGE, SWEET (Citrus sinensis)Nervous anxiety, constipation, intestinal spasm, fluid retention, detoxifying, heavy legs, cellulite, insomnia, depression, anxiety- and stress-related conditions, tension, convalescenceAntibacterial, antiseptic, calmative, cholagogue, depurative, diuretic, sedative, stimulant, stomachic, tonicNo contraindications known
OREGANO (Origanum vulgare)Viral infection, bacterial infection, respiratory tract infection, muscular painAnalgesic, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic, antiviral, expectorant, rubefacient, stimulantMay cause skin sensitivity; a skin patch test is advisable. Avoid during pregnancy and while breast-feeding. Avoid if using multiple medications.
OREGANO, GREEK (Origanum heracleoticum)Viral infection, bacterial infection, parasitic infection, respiratory tract infection, gastrointestinal infection, bronchitis, catarrh, colds, influenza, rheumatism, muscular pain, acne, abscessesAnalgesic, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-infectious, antiseptic, antiviral, immunostimulant, stimulantMay cause irritation on highly sensitive skins; a patch test is advisable. Best avoided during pregnancy and while breast-feeding.
PALMAROSA (Cymbopogon martinii)Sinusitis, excess mucus, cystitis, urinary tract infection, bacterial infection, gastrointestinal disorders, scarring, wounds, acne, pimples, boils, fungal infection, general fatigue, muscular aches, overexercised muscles, stress, irritability, restlessness, insect bites and stingsAntibacterial, antifungal, anti-infectious, antiseptic, antiviral, cicatrizing, cytophylactic, digestive, immunostimulant, insect deterrent, vulneraryBest avoided during pregnancy
PATCHOULI (Pogostemon cablin)Fungal infection, parasitic skin infection, ringworm, scabies, mites, scalp infection, problematic skin conditions, sores, abscess, cuts, grazes, insect repellent, insect bites and stings, PMS, depression, moodiness, irritabilityAntidepressant, antifungal, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic, astringent, calmative, cicatrizing, cytophylactic, insect deterrent, nervineNo contraindications known
PEPPERMINT (Mentha piperita)Headache, migraine, digestive problems, nausea, colic, gastrointestinal disorders, flatulence, colitis, diverticulitis, Crohn’s disease, IBS, sinus congestion, sinusitis, muscular aches and pains, muscular injuries, muscular spasm, sciatica, sprains, rheumatism, menstrual cramp, neuralgia, mental exhaustion, tension, physical exhaustion, fatigue, apathyAnalgesic, antibacterial, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, carminative, cholagogue, circulatory, decongestant, digestive, emmenagogue, stimulant, stomachic, tonicAvoided during pregnancy and while breast-feeding. Avoid using undiluted in baths and showers.
PETITGRAIN (Citrus aurantium)Stress-related conditions, nervous spasm, muscular spasm, general aches, hypertension, nervous asthma, insomnia, depression, general debility, stress, tension, irritabilityAntidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, calmative, cicatrizing, cytophylactic, nervine, relaxant, sedative, tonicNo contraindications known
PINE (Pinus sylvestris)Rheumatism, muscular pain, muscular injury, muscular fatigue, fatigued and heavy legs, gout, bronchial infection, sinus congestion, general debility, fatigue, mental and nervous exhaustionAnti-infectious, antimicrobial, antiseptic, balsamic, decongestant, diuretic, expectorant, pectoral, tonicMay cause irritation on highly sensitive skin or skin prone to allergic reaction; a patch test is advisable. Best avoided by those with respiratory problems.
PLAI (Zingiber cassumunar)Arthritis, joint pains, muscle pain, muscular injuries, torn ligaments, muscular spasm, tendonitis, menstrual cramp, abdominal spasm, colitis, diverticulosisAnalgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-neuralgic, antispasmodic, calmative, carminative,No contraindications known
RAVENSARA (Ravensara aromatica)Colds, influenza, bacterial infection, viral infection, herpes, shingles, bronchial infection, bronchitis, respiratory tract infection, rhinitis, sinusitis, muscular painAntibacterial, anti-infectious, antiseptic, antiviral, expectorant, immunostimulant, stimulantBest avoided during pregnancy
RAVINTSARA (Cinnamomum camphora ct. cineole)Bronchitis, bronchial congestion, colds, sinusitis, rhinitis, excess mucus, laryngitis, respiratory infection, viral infectionAnthelmintic, antibacterial, anticatarrhal, antifungal, anti-infectious, antiseptic, antiviral, expectorant, immunostimulant, mucolyticBest avoided during pregnancy
ROSALINA/SWAMP PAPERBARK (Melaleuca ericifolia)Respiratory tract infections, sinusitis, sinus headache, coughs, colds, restlessness, nervousness, irritability, acne, pimples, insect bitesAnalgesic, antibacterial, anti-infectious, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, calmative, expectorant, immunostimulant, nervine, pectoralNo contraindications known
ROSE ABSOLUTE (Rosa centifolia)Infertility, menstrual problems, endometriosis, dysmenorrhea, menstrual cramp, abdominal cramp, circulatory problems, depression, anxiety, tension, phobias, nervous tension, stress-related conditions, scarringAntidepressant, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, calmative, cicatrizing, cytophylactic, hypnotic, nervine, sedative, tonicNo contraindications known
ROSEMARY (Rosmarinus officinalis)Muscular aches and pains, rheumatism, arthritis, muscular weakness, muscular injuries, headache, migraine, gastric upset, abdominal spasm, respiratory conditions, sinus congestion, fluid retention, heavy legs, edema, cellulite, detoxifying, memory enhancement, general debility, acne, pimples, boils, abscesses, dandruff, hair lossAnalgesic, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, cicatrizing, decongestant, depurative, diuretic, immunostimulant, insect deterrent, restorative, spasmolytic, stomachic, stimulantBest avoided during pregnancy
ROSE OTTO/BULGARIAN ROSE/TURKISH ROSE (Rosa damascena)Female reproductive problems, infertility, menstrual irregularity, endometriosis, dysmenorrhea, menstrual cramp, abdominal cramp, circulatory conditions, acne, skin dehydration, scarring, premature aging, depression, anxiety, emotional anxiety, nervous tension, stress-related conditionsAntidepressant, anti-infectious, antiseptic, astringent, calmative, cicatrizing, circulatory, cytophylactic, emmenagogue, emollient, sedative, spasmolytic, tonicNo contraindications known
ROSEWOOD / BOIS DE ROSE (Aniba rosaeodora)Bronchial infections, tonsillitis, coughs, stress headache, convalescence, acne, eczema, psoriasis, scarring, insect bites and stings, nervousness, depression, anxiety, stress-related conditions; tonicAnalgesic, anthelmintic, antifungal, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antiviral, calmative, cytophylactic, spasmolytic, tonicNo contraindications known
SAGE (Salvia officinalis)Arthritis, rheumatism, muscular aches and pains, muscular injury, tendonitis, painful joints, menstrual pain, menstrual cramp, menopausal symptoms, hot flashes, excess perspiration, varicose congestion, heavy and tired legsAntibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, astringent, cholagogue, cicatrizing, expectorant, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, mucolytic, stomachic, tonicUse with care and avoid prolonged use. Use well diluted. Do not use if subject to seizures, epilepsy, or high blood pressure. Avoid all use during pregnancy and while breast-feeding.
SAGE, GREEK (Salvia fruticosa/tribola)Muscular aches and pains, muscular injury, painful joints, headache, stomachache, sore throat, menstrual cramp, acne, pimplesAnti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, stomachic, tonicUse with care for a short length of time, in low dosage. Avoid during pregnancy and while breast-feeding.
SANDALWOOD (Santalum album)Coughs, sore throats, urinary infection, cystitis, vaginal infections, heavy legs, scarring, insomnia, anxiety, nervous tension, nervous exhaustion, depressionAntidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, calmative, cicatrizing, diuretic, emollient, nervine, pectoral, restorative, sedative, tonicNo contraindications known
SANDALWOOD, PACIFIC (Santalum austrocaledonicum)Insomnia, stress, uterine spasms, depression, nervous anxietyAntiseptic, antispasmodic, calmative, emollient, expectorant, sedativeNo contraindications known
SARO/MANDRAVASAROTRA (Cinnamosma fragrans)Bronchitis, catarrh, coughs, colds, influenza, sinusitis, muscular pain, muscular injuries, cellulite, physical exhaustionAnalgesic, antifungal, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, expectorant, mucolyticBest avoided during pregnancy
SAVORY, SUMMER (Satureja hortensis)Bronchial infections, catarrh, influenza, muscular aches and pains, fungal infection, insect bitesAnthelmintic, antifungal, anti-infectious, antimicrobial, astringent, carminative, immunostimulantCan cause skin irritation; a patch test is advisable. Avoid during pregnancy and while breast-feeding. Avoid if using multiple medications.
SAVORY, WINTER/MOUNTAIN (Satureja montana)Viral infection, bacterial infection, respiratory infection, bronchitis, fungal infection, muscular aches and pains, skeletal aches and pains, digestive problems, wounds, abscessesAnthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-infectious, antiparasitic, antiviral, immunostimulant, tonicCan cause skin irritation; a patch test is advisable. Avoid during pregnancy and while breast-feeding. Avoid if using multiple medications.
SPEARMINT (Mentha spicata)Colic, dyspepsia, nausea, flatulence, digestive upsets, stomachache, neuralgia, lumbago, muscular aches, nervous migraine, nervous fatigueAntiseptic, calmative, decongestant, digestive, nervine, restorative, spasmolytic, stimulant, stomachicNo contraindications known
SPIKENARD (Nardostachys jatamansi)Insomnia, menstrual problems, muscular spasm, muscular contraction, neuralgia, sciatica, bodily congestion, aging skin, rashes, urticaria, physical tension, stress-related conditions, anxiety, nervous tension; calmingAnalgesic, antibacterial, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, calmative, nervine, regenerative, restorative, sedative, soporific, spasmolyticNo contraindications known
SPRUCE (Picea abies)Bronchitis, respiratory problems, physical fatigue, mental exhaustion, rheumatism, general aches and pains, acne, anxiety, stressAntibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antitussive, expectorant, tonicMay cause irritation on sensitive skins; a patch test is advisable. Best avoided during pregnancy.
SPRUCE, BLACK (Picea mariana)Bronchial infections, catarrh, sinus congestion, arthritis, rheumatism, gout, overexercised muscles, stiff joints, muscular strains, tendonitis, celluliteAnalgesic, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, diuretic, expectorant, insect deterrent, pectoralMay cause irritation on highly sensitive skins; a patch test is advisable. Best avoided during pregnancy.
TAGETES (Tagetes minuta)Athlete’s foot, corns, calluses, bunions, parasitic infestations, resistant fungal infectionsAntifungal, antimicrobial, antiseptic, insect deterrent, parasiticPhotosensitizer; do not apply to the skin prior to sun exposure. May cause irritation on sensitive skin; a skin patch test is advisable. Best avoided during pregnancy and while breast-feeding.
TANGERINE (Citrus reticulata/C. nobilis)Stress-induced insomnia, nervous exhaustion, mild muscular spasm, cellulite, digestive problems, detoxifying, flatulence, constipation, bodily congestion, tired all the time, irritability, generally dispirited, overly anxiousAntiseptic, antispasmodic, cytophylactic, depurative, digestive, sedative, stomachic, tonicNo contraindications known
TARRAGON (Artemisia dracunculus)Dyspepsia, flatulence, indigestion, intestinal spasm, gastrointestinal problems, constipation, nausea, muscular cramp, muscular spasm, rheumatism, abdominal congestion and swellingAnti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antiviral, carminative, diuretic, stomachic, tonicAvoid if using multiple medications. Avoid prolonged use. May cause irritation on highly sensitive skins; a skin patch test is advisable. Avoid during pregnancy and while breast-feeding.
TEA TREE (Melaleuca alternifolia)Bacterial skin infections, parasitic skin infection, respiratory tract infection, sinusitis, rhinitis, wounds, ulceration, pimples, acne, abscesses, head and body lice, athlete’s foot, fungal foot infection, warts, verrucasAnthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic, antiviral, decongestant, immunostimulant, vulneraryMay cause irritation on sensitive skins; a patch test is advisable.
THYME (Thymus vulgaris)Bacterial and viral skin infections, respiratory tract infection, catarrh, bronchitis, muscular spasm, infected and weeping wounds, herpes, chronic fatigue, mental fatigueAnalgesic, anthelmintic, antifungal, anti-infectious, antimicrobial, antiputrescent, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, immunostimulant, stimulant, tonic, vermifugeAvoid prolonged use. May cause irritation; a patch test is advisable. Best avoided during pregnancy.
THYME LINALOL (Thymus vulgaris ct. linalool)Influenza, coughs, colds, bronchitis, sinusitis, rhinitis, laryngitis, sore throat, mucus congestion, viral and bacterial skin infection, circulatory problems, cold limbs, numbness, muscular pain, tendonitis, arthritis, rheumatism, acne, warts, verrucas, lethargy, inability to concentrateAnalgesic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-infectious, antiputrescent, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, expectorant, immunostimulant, pectoral, restorative, stimulant, tonic, vermifugeNo contraindications known
TUBEROSE ABSOLUTE (Polianthes tuberosa)Muscular spasm, stress-induced conditions, physical tension, insomnia, nervousness, restlessness, irritability, anxiety, depressionAntidepressant, calmative, carminative, hypnotic, relaxant, sedative, spasmodic, stimulantMay cause irritation on sensitive skins; a patch test is advisable. Best avoided during pregnancy and while breast-feeding.
TURMERIC (Curcuma longa)Gastrointestinal conditions, indigestion, dyspepsia, stomach cramp, general aches and pains, rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritisAnalgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, cholagogue, digestive, diuretic, restorative, stimulant, stomachic, tonicAvoid prolonged use. May cause irritation on sensitive skins; a patch test is advisable. Best avoided during pregnancy. Avoid if using multiple medications.
VALERIAN (Valeriana officinalis)Insomnia, nervousness, stress, tension, tension headache, stress-induced migraine, muscular spasm, cramp, restlessness, inability to relax, restless leg, trembling disordersAntimicrobial, antispasmodic, calmative, depurative, diuretic, hypnotic, nervine, sedative, soporific, stomachicAvoid if taking sedatives or antidepressant medication. Best avoided during pregnancy and while breast-feeding.
VANILLA ABSOLUTE (Vanilla plantifolia)Stress-induced conditions, nervous anxiety, nervousness, insomnia and restlessness, nervous stomach, inability to relaxAntidepressant, balsamic, calmative, sedative, stimulantMay cause irritation on highly sensitive skins; a patch test is advisable.
VETIVER (Vetiveria zizanoides)Stress-induced conditions, nervous tension, muscular spasm, muscular pain, menstrual cramping, premenstrual syndrome, restlessness, restless legs, workaholism, physical exhaustion, irritability, depressionAntimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, depurative, nervine, restorative, sedative, tonicNo contraindications known
VIOLET LEAF ABSOLUTE (Viola odorata)Fluid retention, edema, cellulite, stress-induced acne, prematurely aged skin, bruising, sore skin, nervous exhaustionAnalgesic, antibacterial, antiseptic, astringent, cytophylactic, diuretic, emollient, soporific, stimulantNo contraindications known
YARROW (Achillea millefolium)Rheumatism, arthritis, inflammation, muscular injury, menstrual cramp, wounds, scarringAnti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, cicatrizing, circulatory, expectorantAvoid if using multiple medications. May cause irritation on highly sensitive skins; a patch test is advisable.
YLANG YLANG (Cananga odorata)Hypertension, circulation, muscular cramp, menstrual cramp, intestinal spasm, insomnia, nervous tension, stress, nervousness, depression, physical exhaustionAntidepressant, antiphlogistic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, calmative, nervine, sedative, tonicMay cause irritation on highly sensitive skin; a skin patch test is advisable.
YUZU (Citrus junos)General tonic, nervous stomach cramp, cellulite, neuralgia, influenza, colds, postviral convalescence, stress-induced skin conditions, nervous tension, anxiety, nervous exhaustionAnalgesic, antibacterial, anti-infectious, antiseptic, antiviral, calmative, diuretic, nervine, sedative, stimulant, tonicMay cause irritation. With highly sensitive skin, a skin patch test is advisable.
ZDRAVETZSee Geranium, Bulgarian

DILUTION GUIDE

MINIMUM–MAXIMUM DROPS OF ESSENTIAL OILINTO MILLILITERS OF CARRIER OILOR SPOON MEASUREMENTS OF CARRIER OIL
0–1 drop1 teaspoon
2–5 drops51 teaspoon
4–10 drops102 teaspoons
6–15 drops151 tablespoon
8–20 drops204 teaspoons
10–25 drops255 teaspoons
12–30 drops302 tablespoons

CONVERSIONS: OUNCES AND MILLILITERS

Very often in this book I suggest blends diluted in 1 fluid ounce (fl. oz.), or 30 mL, of carrier oil. Because of the difficulties of conversion, this is slightly inaccurate; in 1 fl. oz. there are in fact 29.5735296875 mL. If you can, try to measure in milliliters because measuring small quantities is easier in Metric than it is in Imperial. For reference, here are the conversion rates.

To convert volumes in milliliters into fluid ounces:

1 mL = 0.03381 fl. oz.

5 mL = 0.16907 fl. oz.

10 mL = 0.33814 fl. oz.

20 mL = 0.67628 fl. oz.

30 mL = 1.01442 fl. oz.

100 mL = 3.38140 fl. oz.

To convert volumes in fluid ounces into milliliters:

¼ fl. oz. = 7.39338 mL

½ fl. oz. = 14.78676 mL

¾ fl. oz. = 22.18014 mL

1 fl. oz. = 29.57352 mL

ESSENTIAL OIL METHODS OF USE: AN A–Z GUIDE

Use the recommended amount of essential oil and methods described throughout this book for more specific purposes, or follow these general guidelines.

METHOD OF USEAMOUNT TO USENOTES
BATHS, GENERALDiluted: 3–8 drops Undiluted: 1–4 dropsRun the bath as usual. Keep the door closed to keep the aroma in the room. Essential oils can be used neat — in their concentrated form — or diluted in carrier oil, milk, milk powder, vegetable glycerin, seaweed powder, herbal powders, baking soda, salt, or Epsom salts. To avoid skin sensitivity, dilute the essential oil first in a little carrier oil. Essential oil can also be dropped directly onto the water in the bathtub and dispersed by agitating the water with the hand before getting into the bath.
BATHS, SITZ2 or 3 drops per sitz bathA sitz bath is a bath in which you immerse the lower part of your torso in water, from the waist to upper thigh, to treat specific conditions.

Run a bath to hip level or use a bowl that is large enough to lower your behind into. Add the essential oil to the water, and then disperse it well with your hand to avoid large globules that may come in contact with delicate mucous membranes.

BATHS, FOOT5–8 drops in a bowl of water, diluted or undilutedFill a large bowl with warm water and add the essential oil, dispersing it well with your hand. For a really relaxing foot bath, place some round, smooth pebbles in the bottom of the bowl and rub the feet gently back and forth over them. Rock or sea salt or Epsom salts can also be added. Soak the feet for a maximum of 20 minutes, adding warm water as needed. If globules of diluted essential oil are floating on the surface of the water, you can gather them in your hands and massage the oil into the feet.
BATHS, HAND2–4 drops in a bowl of waterFill a small bowl with warm water and add the essential oil, diluted in a nourishing carrier oil, and disperse it well with your hand. Leave the hands in the water for a maximum of 10 minutes. If globules of diluted essential oil are floating on the surface of the water, you can massage them into your hands.
BIDETS1 drop diluted in ½ teaspoon carrier oilUse warm water. Then add the diluted essential oil and disperse it as well as possible to avoid irritation of mucous membranes.
CLOTHING1 or 2 dropsMany essential oils can mark clothing, depending upon the material, so use this method only when necessary and on clothes you’re prepared to see stained. This method is useful for repelling insects, especially midges and mosquitoes. Put the essential oil neat (undiluted) on socks, on the bottom of shorts or trouser legs, or on the collar, sleeves, or cuffs of shirts. To keep insects away from your head, apply the oil to a hat, hair band, or head scarf.
COMPRESSES3–10 dropsCompresses can be applied hot or cold. Broadly speaking, hot compresses are used on muscular aches and pains, while cold is used for any inflamed or swollen areas, including sprains and strains. Hot increases circulation to the area, while cold can decrease circulation.

Always use 100% natural material, unbleached if possible. There are two methods of applying compresses:

1.Place the essential oil in half a cup of water, and then dampen the material in the cup, collecting the essential oil onto the material. Squeeze out the excess water, and then place over the problematic area.

2.Wet the compress, apply the essential oil directly onto the wet material, rub the material together to disperse the essential oil, and place over the problematic area.

COTTON PADS OR BALLS1 or 2 dropsPut undiluted essential oil on the cotton pad or ball, leave to dry, and place in clothes drawers or closets. Infused cotton pads or balls can be placed around the home to deter insects.
COTTON SWABS1 or 2 dropsPut the undiluted essential oil onto the cotton swab and apply directly to the affected area.
DIFFUSERSAs desiredA wide range of diffusers are available. Some rely on a heat source — a candle or electricity — to heat the essential oil molecules and disperse them into the atmosphere. Other types work in entirely different ways — using a fan, for example, to disperse the molecules. Diffusers are designed for both room and vehicle use.

Pottery diffusers should be nonporous to allow cleaning. With diffusers using water, ensure that the water level is maintained so the essential oils don’t burn.

Nebulizers or oil vaporizers, which issue a fine spray of essential oil into the atmosphere, were designed for clinical use and are often difficult to clean between uses of different blends of essential oil.

DILUTION, HIGH5 drops of essential oil to 5 drops of carrier oilThis method is used in cases of acute infection, when a higher concentration of essential oil is required but where neat essential oil would not be appropriate. Simply apply to the affected area. Recommendations of essential oils for particular conditions are found throughout the book.
DRESSINGS1–6 drops applied directly onto a dressingThis method is used to prevent the spread of infection and promote wound healing. Add the essential oil directly onto the dressing that will cover the affected area — such as bandages, lint, cotton, or the fabric part of adhesive bandages. If the area is already dressed, apply the essential oil on the exposed skin around the dressing.
FACE MASKS1 or 2 drops per 2 tablespoons (30 mL) of face mask, or use as directed in other sections of the bookEssential oils can be added to any natural face mask. Base your choice of essential oil upon your skin type and the action on the skin you want it to achieve — whether as a treatment for acne, as a general stimulant, as a cleanser, as a purifier, rejuvenator, etc.
FACE OILS8–15 drops in 1 fl. oz. (30 mL) of carrier oil, or use as directed in other sections of the bookUse the same method as for making a massage oil (see page 19). However, use a more skin-nourishing carrier oil, with additional restorative nut or seed oils, depending on your skin type. Use only a small amount for each application.
FACE TONICS8–15 drops in 3½ fl. oz. (100 mL) of water or hydrolat, or use as directed in other sections of the bookUse spring or distilled water or hydrolat. Combine the oil and water before filtering through an unbleached paper coffee filter.

Hydrolats make excellent face tonics and can be used as purchased, or diluted with 20% water.

FRICTION20–30 drops to 1 fl. oz. (30 mL) of alcohol, or use as directed in other sections of the bookFriction is a term that is often used to describe the action of quickly rubbing a part of the body, a treatment often utilized by sports therapists. For friction, essential oil can be added to ethyl alcohol (also known as rubbing alcohol) — which has traditionally been used in sports remedial care. Shake the mixture well before use. An alternative to the alcohol would be a light, easily absorbed carrier oil.

This method should not be used on the face or delicate mucous membrane areas.

GARDENING1 or 2 drops in a gallon (4 liters) of waterCertain essential oils can be very effective as plant misters for microbial infection or to deter insects. Add the essential oil to the water, shake vigorously, and leave to blend for 24 hours, before filtering through a paper coffee filter. Essential oils should never be combined with chemical gardening products, but they can be used with other natural organic methods. See chapter 18, “Gardens for the Future.”
HOT TUBSUp to 8 dropsAdd the essential oil to the water and disperse it well with your hand.

Essential oils are not water soluble and may leave a residue in or around pipes.

HUMIDIFIERSUp to 8 drops per pint (475 mL) of waterAdd the essential oil to the water in the humidifier.

For humidifiers that hang over radiators, just add the essential oil to the water. More complex machines, however, may be damaged by sticky residue, so assess each humidifier to make sure it can be used in conjunction with essential oils.

INHALATION (as a vapor from a bowl)3–5 drops per bowl of water, or use as directed in other sections of the bookPut steaming hot water in a bowl and add the essential oil. Cover the head with a towel, which should be large enough to reach over the sides of the bowl. Keep the face 12 inches (30 cm) away from the water and shut both eyes. Inhale the steam through the nose, with each inhalation lasting around 2–3 seconds. Repeat as needed but for no more than 5–10 minutes per session.
INHALATION (from a tissue or handkerchief)1 or 2 dropsSimply put the essential oil onto a tissue or handkerchief and inhale through the nose when required.
JACUZZISUp to 8 dropsAdd the essential oil to the Jacuzzi water, then disperse it with the hand.

Essential oils are not water soluble and may leave a residue in or on the pipes.

LOTIONS AND CREAMS (for body)5–20 drops to each 1 fl. oz. (30 mL) of natural, unfragranced lotion or cream, or use as directed in other sections of the bookUse an unscented lotion or cream, made of organic natural ingredients. Add the required number of essential oil drops and mix in well. Use as you would a normal body cream.
MASSAGE OIL (for body)10–30 drops to each 1 fl. oz. (30 mL) of carrier oil, or use as directed in other sections of the bookUse a dark-colored glass bottle. Measure the carrier oil. If using a single essential oil or a pre-prepared blend, add it to the carrier oil. If making your own blend of essential oils, first combine them, then add the required number of drops to the carrier oil. Use no more than the amount required to cover the area being massaged.
NEAT APPLICATION (undiluted)1 or 2 drops, or use as directed in other sections of the bookIn some conditions certain essential oils can be used undiluted on the skin due to the nature of that condition. But some essential oils are not suitable for this method due to potential skin irritation. Use this method only with the essential oils suggested for this purpose throughout the book.
PERFUMESBetween 15% and 30% of the total perfumeAbsolutes and essential oils are the original perfume materials. To create a natural perfume they can be blended together and incorporated into a carrier oil, liquid wax base, or alcohol. (See the section “Making Your Own Perfumes and Eau de Cologne” in chapter 15.)
PILLOWS1–3 dropsEssential oils can be applied on pillows to assist breathing in cases of respiratory infection or sleeping problems. Simply place 1–3 drops of essential oil on the corner or underside of a pillow, away from the eyes. Alternatively, put the essential oil on a cotton ball or tissue and tuck it under the corner of the pillow or inside the pillowcase — behind the pillow. Ensure that the essential oil is located in an area away from the face, especially the eyes.
POTPOURRISAs desiredAdd the essential oils to the potpourri in the same way as you would add a commercial synthetic potpourri-refresher product.

Single essential oils or blends can be used. Essential oils may cause color changes to potpourri material that has been colored.

ROOM SPRAYSAs room purifier: 10–20 drops per pint (475 mL) of water

As general fragrance: 8–10 drops per pint (475 mL) of water

The quick and easy method is to use a new plant mister. Add the essential oil to about a pint of warm water in the mister, avoiding the thicker viscous types of essential oil as these may accumulate around the nozzle. Shake vigorously each time it’s used, as essential oils are not water soluble. Avoid spraying over fine furniture, wood, fabrics, and anything that could be damaged by water.
SAUNAS2–5 drops per 2 pints (950 mL) of waterOnly use this method if the sauna uses water to induce heat.

Add the essential oil to the water, mixing as best as you can, and filter the mixture through a paper coffee filter before placing on the hot coals or rocks. Use essential oils of juniper, cypress, pine, or eucalyptus.

Essential oils are flammable and should never be placed on a heat source unless diluted in water and filtered.

SCALP TREATMENTS5–10 drops in ½ fl. oz. (15 mL) of carrier, or use as directed in other sections of the bookA variety of base carriers can be used for scalp treatments. These can include natural (botanical), ready-made scalp treatments, to which the essential oil can be added. Or the essential oil can be added to aloe vera gel, water, or jojoba oil, and massaged into the scalp.

Use 2–3 drops of your prepared mix for each application.

Alternatively, simply add the essential oil to a bowl of final rinse water after washing the hair.

SHAMPOOS5–10 drops in 3½ fl. oz. (100 mL), or use as directed in other sections of the bookEssential oils can be added to any unscented shampoo that is composed of organic natural ingredients. Ensure the essential oils are well distributed. Choose essential oils that can be used on sensitive skin.
SHOWERS1–5 dropsWash as usual. Then drop the essential oil onto a washcloth or sponge and rub it briskly over the body as you continue to stand under the running water. Breathe in the aromatic steam through your nose. Avoid the face and delicate membrane areas.
SILK (FAUX) FLOWERSAs desiredOpen the flower completely and place the essential oil right at the center. Close the flower again if desired. Remember that essential oils may cause discoloration, so try this on one flower before proceeding with the others. Essential oils can also be placed on paper that is put in the bottom of the vase.
SPRAYS AND MISTS FOR FACE AND BODYFor body: 10–20 drops to each pint (475 mL) of water

For face: 2–5 drops to each half pint (240 mL) of water

Or use as directed in other sections of the book.

Add the essential oils to warm water or a hydrolat, shake thoroughly, pour through an unbleached paper coffee filter, and place in a spray container. Cool before using.

Shake before each use.

This method is useful for body or face. Keep the eyes closed when spraying the face.

WASHES15–32 drops in ½ pint (240 mL) of warm water. Or use as directed in other sections of the book.wash is a prepared mixture for washing infected areas, such as wounds, grazes, and cuts. Mix the essential oils and water together in a bottle and shake well. Keep stored in the fridge for no longer than 14 days, and shake before each use.
WATER BOWL (room diffuser)2–10 drops per pint (475 mL)Boil a pint (475 mL) of water and put the steaming water in a heatproof bowl, then add the essential oil. Place on the floor or on a heatproof surface, ensuring that it’s not within reach of children or pets. Close doors and windows to keep the aroma molecules inside.